The Russell County Public School system consists of one (1) primary school, six (6) elementary schools, one (1) middle school, three (3) high schools, Russell County Career & Technology Center, Alternative Center and Southwest Regional Adult Education Program. Student enrollment as of 2016 was 3,752.

After high school, students have the possibility of moving on to Southwest Virginia Community College located in Cedar Bluff, Virginia. This two-year institution of higher education provides paths of education for citizens in many surrounding counties. 

The Southwest Center for Education and Training is a technological training center located in the Government Center in Lebanon, Virginia. The Center offers places for training, education and business meetings. 

Located in Wise, Virginia, the University of Virginia's College at Wise is a four-year residential liberal arts college. UVA-Wise has been ranked nationally among liberal arts colleges.